Allidina, S., Long, E. U., Baoween, W., & Cunningham, W. A. (2023). Decoupling the conflicting evaluative meanings in automatically activated race-based associations. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1-19.


Pretus, C.Ray, J. L.Granot, Y.Cunningham, W. A., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2022). The psychology of hate: Moral concerns differentiate hate from dislikeEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 53(2), 245-417.

Ai, W., Cunningham, W. A., & Lai, M. (2022). Reconsidering autistic ‘camouflaging’ as transactional impression management. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 26(8), 631-645.

Cockburn, J., Man, V., Cunningham, W. A., & O’Doherty, J. P. (2022). Novelty and uncertainty regulate the balance between exploration and exploitation through distinct mechanisms in the human brain. Neuron, 110, 1-12.

Gelpi, R. A., Allidina, S., Hoyer, D., & Cunningham, W. A. (2022). The labelled container: Conceptual development of social category representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Pavlović, T., Azevedo, F., De, K., Riaño-Moreno, J. C., Maglić, M., Gkinopoulos, T., … & Keudel, O. (2022). Predicting attitudinal and behavioral responses to COVID-19 pandemic using machine learning. PNAS Nexus.

Van Bavel, J. J., et al. (2022). National identity predicts public health support during a global pandemic. Nature communications, 13(1), 517.


Allidina, S. & Cunningham, W. A. (2021). Avoidance begets avoidance: A computational account of negative stereotype persistence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Damiano, C., Walther, D. B., & Cunningham, W. A. (2021). Contour features predict valence and threat judgements in scenes. Scientific Reports11(1), 1-12.

Dukes, D., Abrams, K., Adolphs, R., Ahmed, M. E., Beatty, A., Berridge, K. C., … & Sander, D. (2021). The rise of affectivism. Nature Human Behaviour, 1-5.

Golubickis, M., Ho, N. S., Falbén, J. K., Schwertel, C. L., Maiuri, A., Dublas, D., Cunningham, W.A., & Macrae, C. N. (2021). Valence and ownership: Object desirability influences self-prioritization. Psychological research85(1), 91-100.

Kurdi, B., Ratliff, K. A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2021). Can the Implicit Association Test serve as a valid measure of automatic cognition? A response to Schimmack (2021). Perspectives on Psychological Science16(2), 422-434.

Man, V., & Cunningham, W. A. (2021). Multiple scales of valence processing in the brain. Social neuroscience16(1), 57-67.

Vrantsidis, T. H., & Cunningham, W. A. (2021). The Effect of Knowledge about a Group on Perceived Group Variability and Certainty about Stereotype-Based Inferences. Social Cognition, 39(4), 457-488. 


Botvinik-Nezer et al. (2020). Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams. Nature, 582, 84–88.

Gelpi, R., Cunningham, W. A., & Buchsbaum, D. (2020). Belief as a non-epistemic adaptive benefit. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43.

Golubickis, M., Falbén, J. K., Ho, N. S. P., Sui, J., Cunningham, W. A., & Macrae, C. N. (2020). Parts of me: Identity-relevance moderates self-prioritization. Consciousness and Cognition, 77, 102848.

Kosik, T. R., Man, V., Jahn, A., Lee, C. H., & Cunningham, W. A. (2020). Decomposing the neural pathways in a simple, value-based choice. NeuroImage, 116764.

Landy, J. F., Jia, M., Ding, I. L., Viganola, D., Tierney, W., . . . Uhlmann, E. L. (2020). Crowdsourcing hypothesis tests: Making transparent how design choices shape research results. Psychological Bulletin, 146(5), 451–479.

Long, E. U., Wheeler, N. E., & Cunningham, W. A. (2020). Through the looking glass: Distinguishing neural correlates of relational and nonrelational self-reference and person representation. Cortex, 130, 257-274.

Teoh, Y. Y., Yao, Z., Cunningham, W. A., & Hutcherson, C. A. (2020). Attentional priorities drive effects of time pressure on altruistic choice. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-13.

Wheeler, N. E., Allidina, S., Long, E. U., Schneider, S., Haas, I. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2020). Ideology and Predictive Processing: Coordination, bias, and polarization in socially constrained error minimization. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 34, 192-198.


Allidina, S., Arbuckle, N. L., & Cunningham, W. A. (2019). Considerations of Mutual Exchange in Prosocial Decision-Making. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Falben, J. K., Olivier, J. L., Golubickis, M., Ho, N. S. P., Persson, L. M., Tsamadi, D., Marinopoulou, E., Bianciardi, B., Cunningham, W. A., & Macrae, C.N. (2019). Stop Stereotyping. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 81(5), 1228-1235.

Falben, J. K., Tsamadi, D., Golubickis, M., Olivier, J., Persson, L., Cunningham, W. A., & Macrae, C .N. (2019). Predictably Confirmatory: The Influence of Stereotypes During Decisional Processing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(10), 2437-2451.

Gaut, G., Li, X., Turner, B., Cunningham, W.A., Lu, Z.L., & Steyvers, M. (2019). Predicting Task and Subject Differences with Functional Connectivity and BOLD Variability. Brain Connectivity,9(6), 451-463.

Golubickis, M., Ho, N. S. P., Falbén, J. K., Mackenzie, K. M., Boschetti, A., Cunningham, W. A., & Neil Macrae, C. (2019). Mine or mother’s? Exploring the self-ownership effect across cultures. Culture and Brain, 7(1), 1-25.

Golubickis, M., Ho, N. S. P., Falbén, J. K., Schwertel, C. L., Maiuri, A., Dublas, D., Cunningham, W.A., & Macrae, C. N. (2019). Valence and ownership: Object desirability influences self-prioritization. Psychological Research.

Man, V., Gruber, J., Glahn, D. C., & Cunningham, W. A. (2019). Altered amygdala circuits underlying valence processing among manic and depressed phases in bipolar adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 394-402. 

Nohlen, H. U., van Harreveld, F., & Cunningham, W. A. (2019). Social evaluations under conflict: Negative judgments of conflicting information are easier than positive judgments. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(7), 709-718.

Teachman, B. A., Clerkin, E. M., Cunningham, W., Dreyer-Oren, S., & Werntz, A. (2019). Implicit Cognition and Psychopathology: Looking Back and Looking Forward. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 15(1).


Allidina, S. & Cunningham, W. A. (2018). Moral cues from ordinary behaviour. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 41, E96.

Golubickis, M., Falben, J. K., Cunningham, W. A., & Macrae, C. N. (2018). Exploring the self-ownership effect: Separating stimulus and response biases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 44(2), 295-306.

Gruber, J., Van Bavel, J. J., Somerville, L. H., Lewis, Jr., N. A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2018). Introducing ‘Letters to Young Scientists,’ a new column from Science Careers. Science. 

Tennant, J. M., Cook, S., Moldoveanu, M. C., Peterson, J. B., & Cunningham, W. A. (2018). Interpersonal Resonance: Developing Interpersonal Biofeedback for the Promotion of Empathy and Social Entrainment. In T. Z. Ahram (Ed.), Advances in Human Factors in Wearable Technologies and Game Design (pp. 208–214). Springer International Publishing.

Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2018). Scientific reproducibility in the study of social animals. In E. Aronson & J. Aronson (Eds.) The Social Animal. 12th Edition. New York: Worth/Freeman.


Cunningham, W. A. & Koscik, T. R. (2017). Balancing Type I and Type II error concerns in fMRI through compartmentalized analysis. Cognitive Neuroscience

Dutra, S. J*., Man, V.*, Kober, H., Cunningham, W. A., & Gruber, J. (2017). Disrupted cortico-limbic connectivity during reward processing in remitted bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 19(8), 661-675. *authors contributed equally.

Golubickis, M., Falben, J. K., Sahraie, A., Visokomogilski, A., Cunningham, W. A., Sui, J., & Macrae, C. N. (2017). Self-prioritization and perceptual matching: The effects of temporal construal. Memory & Cognition, 45(7), 1223-1239.

Luttrell, A., Stillman, P. E., Hasinski, A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2016). Neural dissociations in attitude strength: Distinct regions of cingulate cortex track ambivalence and certainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(4), 419-433.

Man, V., Ames, D. L., Todorov, A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2016). Amygdala Tuning toward Self and Other. Positive Neuroscience, 105-123, Chapter 7.

Melo, H. L., Koscik, T. R., Vrantsidis,T. H., Hathaway, G., & Cunningham, W. A. (2016). Origins of emotional consciousness. Brain and Behavioural Sciences, 39, 33.

Wonch, K.E., de Medeiros, C., Barrett, J., Dudin, A, Cunningham, W. A., Hall, G. B., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2016). Postpartum Depression and Brain Response to Infants: Differential Amygdala Response and Connectivity. Social Neuroscience, 11(6), 600-617.


Cunningham, W. & Luttrell, A. (2015). Attitudes. In Arthur W. Toga (Ed.), Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. Oxford: Elsevier.

Dutra, S. J., Cunningham, W.A., Kober, H., & Gruber, J. (2015). Elevated striatal reactivity across monetary and social rewards in bipolar I disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 890-904.

Kirkland, T., Gruber J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2015). Comparing happiness and hypomania: A study of extraversion and neuroticism aspects. PLoS ONE, 10(7), 1–18.

Stillman, P., Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2015). Valence asymmetries in the human amygdala: Task relevance modulates amygdala responses cues. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27, 842–851.


Berkman, E. T., Cunningham, W. A., & Lieberman, M. D. (2014). Research methods in social and affective neuroscience. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.) Handbook of research methods in personality and social psychology (2nd ed), 123–158. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Chapman, H. A., & Cunningham, W.A. (2014). Social groups: Both our destruction and our salvation? In W Sinott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume IV: Free Will and Moral Responsibility, 397–402. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cunningham, W. A., Dunfield, K. A., & Stillman, P. (2014). Affect Dynamics: Iterative Reprocessing in the production of emotional responses. In L. Barrett & J. Russell (Eds.) The Psychological Construction of Emotion, 168–182. New York, NY. Guilford.

Cunningham, W. A., & Kirkland, T. (2014). The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 760–766.

Fujita, K., Trope, Y., Cunningham, W. A., & Liberman, N. (2014). What is control? A conceptual analysis. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.) Dual process theories of the social mind, 50–68. New York: Guilford.

Haas, I. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2014). The uncertainty paradox: Perceived threat moderates the effect of uncertainty on tolerance. Political Psychology, 35, 291–302.

Kirkland, T., Man, V. Y., & Cunningham, W. A. (2014). Positive emotion and the brain: The neuroscience of happiness. In J. Gruber and J. Moskowitz (Eds.), The light and dark sides of positive emotion, 95–115. Oxford University Press.


Cunningham, W. A. (2013). Introduction to Special Section: Psychological Constructivism. Emotion Review, 5, 333–334.

Cunningham, W. A., Dunfield, K. A., & Stillman, P. (2013). Emotional states from affective dynamics. Emotion Review, 5, 344–355.

Jones, C. R., Kirkland, T., & Cunningham, W. A. (2013). Attitudes and emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed.), 251–266. Guilford Press.

Luttrell, A., Briñol,P, Petty, R. E., Cunningham, W. A., & Diaz, D. (2013). Metacognitive Confidence: A Neuroscience Approach. Revista de Psicologia Social, 28, 317–332.


Arbuckle, N. & Cunningham, W. A. (2012). Understanding everyday psychopathy: Shared group identity leads to increased concern for others amongst undergraduates higher in psychopathy. Social Cognition, 5, 564–583.

Cunningham, W. A. & Brosch, T. (2012). Motivational salience: Amygdala tuning from traits, needs, values, and goals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 54–59.

Cunningham, W. A. & Kirkland, T. (2012). Emotion, cognition, and the classical elements of mind. Emotion Review 4, 369–370.

Cunningham, W. A., Van Bavel, J. J., Arbuckle, N. L., Packer, D. J., & Waggoner, A. S. (2012). Rapid social perception is flexible: Approach and avoidance motivational states shape P100 responses to other– race faces. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1–7.

Gruber, J., Cunningham, W. A., Kirkland, T., & Hay, A. C. (2012). Feeling stuck in the present? Mania proneness and history associated with present-oriented time perspective. Emotion, 12, 13– 17.

Kirkland, T. & Cunningham, W. A. (2012). Mapping Emotions through Time: How Affective Trajectories Inform the Language of Emotion. Emotion, 12, 268–282.

Martens, M.A., Hasinski, A.E., Andridge, R.R., & Cunningham, W.A. (2012). Continuous cognitive dynamics of the evaluation of trustworthiness in Williams syndrome. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(160), 1–9.

Todd, R. M., Cunningham, W. A., Anderson, A. K., & Thompson, E. (2012). Affect-biased attention as emotion regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 365–372.

Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2012). A social identity approach to person memory: Group membership, collective identification, and social role shape attention and memory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(12), 1566–1578.

Van Bavel, J.J., Packer, D. J., Haas, I.J., & Cunningham, W.A. (2012). The importance of moral construal: moral versus non-moral construal elicits faster, more extreme, universal evaluations of the same actions. PLoS ONE, 7, 1–14.

Van Bavel, J. J., Swencionis, J. K., O’Connor, R. C., & Cunningham, W. A. (2012). Motivated social memory: Belonging needs moderate the own-group bias in face recognition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 707–713.

Van Bavel, J. J., Xiao, Y. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2012). Evaluation is a dynamic process: Moving beyond dual system models. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 438–454.


Cunningham, W. A., Haas, I. J., & Jahn, A. (2011). Attitudes. In J. Decety & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience, 212–226. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cunningham, W. A., Johnsen, I. R., & Waggoner, A. S. (2011). Orbitofrontal cortex provides cross-modal valuation of self–‐generated stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 286– 293.

Kesek, A., Cunningham, W. A., Packer, D. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2011). Indirect goal priming is more powerful than explicit instruction in children. Developmental Science, 14, 944–948.

Kirkland, T. & Cunningham, W. A. (2011). The neural basis of affect and emotion. WIRES: Cognitive Science, 2, 656–665.

Mowrer, S. M., Jahn, A. A., Abduljalil, A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2011). The value of success: Acquiring gains, avoiding losses, and simply being successful. PLoS One, 6, 1–8.

Packer, D. J., Kesek, A., & Cunningham, W. A. (2011). Self-regulation and evaluative processing. In A. Todorov, S. Fiske, & D. Prentice (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Toward understanding the underpinnings of the social mind, 147–159. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Van Bavel, J. J., Packer, D. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2011). Modulation of the Fusiform Face Area following minimal exposure to motivationally relevant faces: Evidence of in-group enhancement (not out-group disregard). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3343–3354.


Cunningham, W. A. (2010). In defense of brain mapping in social and affective neuroscience. Social Cognition, 28, 716–721.

Cunningham, W. A., Arbuckle, N. L., Jahn, A., Mowrer, S. M., & Abduljalil, A.M. (2010). Aspects of neuroticism and the amygdala: Chronic tuning from motivational styles. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3399–3404.

Gawronski, B., Cunningham, W. A., LeBel, E. P., & Deutsch, R. (2010). Attentional influences on affective priming: Does categorization (always) influence spontaneous evaluation? Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1008–1025.

Kanayet, F., Opfer, J. E., & Cunningham, W. A. (2010). Electrophysiological evidence for multiple representations of number in the human brain. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the XXXII Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1234–1239. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Van Bavel, J. J. & Cunningham, W. A. (2010). A social neuroscience approach to self and social categorization: A New Look at an old issue. European Review of Social Psychology, 21, 237–284.


Cunningham, W. A., Kesek, A., Mowrer, S. M. (2009). Distinct orbitofrontal regions encode stimulus and choice valuation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 1956–966.

Cunningham, W. A. & Van Bavel, J. J. (2009). A neural analysis of intergroup perception and evaluation. In J. T. Cacioppo & G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of neuroscience for the behavioral sciences, 975–984. New York: Wiley.

Cunningham, W. A., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2009). Varieties of emotional experience: Differences in object or computation? Emotion Review, 1, 56–57.

Cunningham, W. A., & Zelazo, P. D. (2009). The development of iterative reprocessing: Implications for affect and its regulation. In P. D. Zelazo, M. Chandler, & E. Crone (Eds.), Developmental social cognitive neuroscience, 81–98. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Lieberman, M.,D. & Cunningham, W. A. (2009). Type I and Type II error concerns in fMRI research: Re-balancing the scale. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 423–42.

Packer, D. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2009). Neural correlates of reflection on goal states: The role of regulatory focus and temporal distance. Social Neuroscience, 4, 412–425.

Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2009). A social neuroscience approach to intergroup perception and evaluation. In W. P. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of consciousness, 379–388. New York: Academic Press.

Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2009). Self-categorization with a novel mixed-race group moderates automatic social and racial biases. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 321–335.


Beer, J. S., Stallen, M., Lombardo, M. V., Gonsalkorale, K., Cunningham, W. A., & Sherman, J. W. (2008). The Quadruple Process model approach to examining the neural underpinnings of prejudice. NeuroImage, 43, 775–783.

Cunningham, W. A., Packer, D. J., Kesek, A., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2008). Implicit measurement of attitudes: A physiological approach. In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio, & P. Brinol (Eds.), Attitudes: Insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 485–512). New York: Psychology Press.

Cunningham, W. A., Van Bavel, J. J., & Johnsen, I. R. (2008). Affective flexibility: Evaluative processing goals shape amygdala activity. Psychological Science, 19, 152–160.

Van Bavel, J. J., Packer, D. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2008). The neural substrates of in-group bias: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Psychological Science, 19, 1131– 1139.


Cunningham, W. A., Zelazo, P. D., Packer, D. J., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2007). The iterative reprocessing model: A multilevel framework for attitudes and evaluation. Social Cognition, 25, 736–760.

Cunningham, W.A., & Zelazo, P.D. (2007). Attitudes and evaluations: A social cognitive neuroscience perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 97–104.

Cunningham, W. A., & Johnson, M. K. (2007). Attitudes and evaluation: Toward a component process framework. In E. Harmon-Jones & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior, 227–245. New York: Guilford Press.

Touryan, S. R., Johnson, M. K., Mitchell, K. J., Farb, N., Cunningham, W. A., & Raye, C. L. (2007). The influence of self-regulatory focus on encoding of, and memory for, emotional words. Social Neuroscience, 2, 14–27.

Zelazo, P. D., & Cunningham, W. (2007). Executive function: Mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 135–158). New York: Guilford.


Cunningham, W. A., & Derks, P. (2005). Humor appreciation and latency of comprehension. Humor, 18, 389–403.

Cunningham, W. A., Espinet, S. D., DeYoung, C. G., & Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Attitudes to the right – and left: Frontal ERP asymmetries associated with stimulus valence and processing goals. NeuroImage, 28, 827–834.

Cunningham, W. A., Raye, C. L., & Johnson, M. K. (2005). Neural correlates of evaluation associated with promotion and prevention regulatory focus. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 202–211.

Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Mitchell, K. J., Greene, E. J., Cunningham, W. A., & Sanislow, C. A. (2005). Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: Prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just activated representation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 339–361.


Cunningham, W. A., Raye, C. L., & Johnson, M. K. (2004). Implicit and explicit evaluation: fMRI correlates of valence, emotional intensity, and control in the processing of attitudes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1717–1729.

Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Separable neural components in the processing of Black and White Faces. Psychological Science, 15, 806–813.

Cunningham, W. A., Nezlek, J. B., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: Revisiting the ideologies of prejudice. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1332–1346.


Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Neural components of social evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 639–649.

Phelps, E. A., Cannistraci, C. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2003). Intact performance on an indirect measure of race bias following amygdala damage. Neuropsychologia, 41, 203–208.


Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002) To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question and weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151– 173.


Cunningham, W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitude measures: Consistency, stability, and convergent validity. Psychological Science, 12, 163–170.


Phelps, E. A., O’Connor, K. J., Cunningham, W. A., Funayama, E. S., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 729–738.