Similar to contemporary dual-process models of attitudes, our model suggests that many evaluative processes occur automatically and sometimes outside of conscious awareness. These processes are important for the study of prejudice and stereotyping because people are often unaware of the biases that the have about members of different social groups, and these biases can influence behaviour without the person knowing that this is occurring. Our work seeks to understand how these biases are represented and used, with special attention paid to how they can be reduced by shifting goals and contexts.
Van Bavel, J. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2009). Self-categorization with a novel mixed-race group moderates automatic social and racial biases. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 321–335.
Van Bavel, J. J., Packer, D. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2008). The neural substrates of in-group bias: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Psychological Science, 19, 1131– 1139.
Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Separable neural components in the processing of Black and White Faces. Psychological Science, 15, 806–813.
Cunningham, W. A., Nezlek, J. B., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: Revisiting the ideologies of prejudice. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1332–1346.
Cunningham, W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitude measures: Consistency, stability, and convergent validity. Psychological Science, 12, 163–170.